Al Sklover provided an interesting observation on the ownership of
ideas produced by employees.
As many of us gain employment first as a temporary employee and
if conditions merit full time status is granted. It is important to
learn the legal implications of contributions to work output.
Sklover points out
1. work product made during the period of employment and related
to the job, can be claimed as “owned” by employer.
2. work product, created before the period and used in the period
can also be claimed as “owned” by the employer.
3. work product you created off the job, not in the work period of
documented hours of work, can be “owned” by the employer.
4. work product resulting from sharing of your personal expertise
with other employees, can be “owned” by the employer.
Employers quite often insist that offer letters and contracts be signed
granting all rights of ownership to the employer.
Sklover has suggested in his entry that there are steps we can take to
protect creative efforts from being consider work for hire.
There are assignment and ethical responsibility implications especially
for contract workers. This is a positive resource worth reading.
Carl Zimmer has written two very meaningful books recently.
One is on the world of viruses. It creates a meaningful picture
for the world of viruses and their interaction with humans.
Virus, as a term, initially meant venom from a snake or the semen
from a man. Its meaning evolved over time to mean a contagious
substance that could spread disease and initially used a tobacco
disease, tobacco mosaic virus.
Bijerinck used virus to describe an agent in the fluid which was
composed of 95% protein and 5% nucleic acid, a protein shell holding
a few genes.
Carl Zimmer outlines eight classes of viruses and how they originated
and infect humans. So many of these virus types are treated via
chemical means. Classes included-
1. rhinovirus (meaning ‘nose’ virus) spread by hands, doorknobs
2. influenza (from the Italian) droplets in air released from coughs,
sneezes, and runny noses
3. human papilloma virus HPV Papilloma virus require some physical
4. ocean viruses - many types in water systems, are still being discovered
Cholera is caused by blooms of waterborne bacteria
which are hosts to a number of phages, that are viruses.
5. Retroviruses insert their genetic material into hosts DNA.
HIV is spread by contact with body fluids
6. West Nile Virus is spread by mosquito.
7. Ebola - spread by body fluids
8. Large virus organisms and bacteriophages