We have brought up Mlodinow’s book, Subliminal, that offers
that human’s memory faculties are faulty. One suggestion is to
create a research notebook for yourself– it could be new business
ideas, new research projects, new and improved products…
We cannot sit still in this fast evolving world. We have minimal
memory resources, until computers evolved and we can easily
store ideas, links and lists.
This entry offers two trends worth noting that you may incorporate,
even if you are not currently engaged in fields. Things are bothchanging and unpredictable
and it helps to try to be open-minded
both to new directions and opportunities.
DRUG DISTRIBUTION: MALDI-MSI
offered an keen review of an approach yielding new
insights into risk assessment of pharma candidates . Matrix-
assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectral imaging is
used to visualize where in samples chemicals and metabolites
are distributed in model system sections.
Cornett indicates that this tool might be required to
inform decisions on regulatory submissions, as it offers
deeper understanding of pharmacology and toxicology.
NOVEL CHEMISTRY: COMMERCE
Novel chemistry is found in patent literature, chemical journals
and offered by custom chemical firms. If it were one and
done, it would be not so special.
The idea is to open up our resource notebook to various inputs
for continuous learning.
So often articles and blog entries talk about hiring trends
for recent graduates. When I peruse them, it seems most
are either anecdotal (few specific examples highlighting
certain concepts) or statistical summaries that are often time
delayed from date of publication.
This entry looks at your second and subsequent positions. So,
in another perspective, we can take a longer, career view.
A career is a process, not an outcome, with many transactions
-learning new skills,
-defining your strengths and building on them, and
-articulating your values so that others will understand
and appreciate you and your contributions.
As scientists, commenters
bring up the discussion of being
that of an occupation formed by setting up formal qualifications
offered by education, internship/apprenticeship and examination,
a regulatory organization which admits and restricts and has a
code of behavior.
Honestly, however, scientific disciplines, like chemistry, may not
be bound by discipline tracks when thinking about job markets.
This may be less important when we look at markets for
wrote a remarkable article on career mistakes
that hinder personal growth and happiness that we obtain from
careers. I contend these apply to advance degreed scientists.
Let me highlight five frames of mind that restrict the “real job market:”
1. hold off pursuing positions of interest due to <100% match to
musts and wants [lack of confidence, weak in resilience, fear of
failure; be willing to learn on the job and seek help]
2. lack of self assessment knowing your strengths and what makes
you thrive and be constantly challenged and engaged. [engage
psychological and economic instruments outside of your employment
chain of command]
3. fall behind in your learning curve of new skills and experiences
to those who extend themselves [could be in work environment and
professional/ volunteer organizations]
4. fail to take an outsider’s perspective of your industry, organization
and department. This can be a situation where you ‘coast’ for a while.
It is important to continue connecting and keeping up with your
5. miss opportunities to learn about branding your skills and abilities
and be visible in more than one organization. In the information era,
this can seem to be trying things that are not immediately rewarded
in one organization, but opens up opportunities in another.
[no funding to attend a professional meeting; become a volunteer,
offer to assume organizational responsibilities, show that you can be
The C&EN article on (+) and (-) sparteine, which had an
origin in “In the Pipeline,” talks about shortages of specific
chemicals. Interestingly, this unresolved shortage is a
business of chemistry concern and something, as the C&EN
article portrays, that can be of interest to many scientists for
It is an inventory and supply chain concern and thus there is
an overlap with Economics that is the focus here. Economics
characterizes how a business is run, whereas proverbial
‘business’ characterizes how to run a business. In a discussion
, Economics uses algorithms to maximize profits,
determining the quantity of a commodity that should be made
and its cost to consumers.
While the end users focus on delivery and quality, there is
more to the economics
side in terms of storage lifetime,
competing product lines for the same equipment, regulatory
and legal (patent) requirements and LCA
. [lifecycle analysis]
In a blog we summarized three posts on Economics that are
critical to understand Rana Faroohar’s book Makers and
Takers. A fourth entry went into “black elephant”
events which are very unlikely negative events that everyone
can see but feel that they cannot do anything about.
We point out here a video narrated by Matt Damon,
“Inside Job” that is must see for everyone.
A second item is a very interesting piece about using
spectroscopy on archaeological artworks.
Finally GENomics contained a piece about evidence
that a bacterium known to originate gum disease also
triggers rheumatoid arthritis using Mass Spec.
BLACK ELEPHANT - “Inside Job”
[available on Netflix] Many of us were directly or indirectly
affected by the financial turmoil of the 2000s. Downsizing,
lower profits, stagnant economy, job loss, hard to find a new
We think we have gotten out of that mirth, but this video
nothing has been done to the perpetrators [Greenspan,
Paulsen, Bernanke, Summers, Fuld, Fed, the Huge
Wall Street Investment banks], the federal bureaucracy,
and the regulators. They are still in an inept situation
with more to come.
We only see things second hand and we need good leadership
to throttle the flow and trajectory.
SPECTROSCOPY DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN
SOURCE: Biblical Archeological Review Mar/Apr 2017
T. R. Hanneken, Digital Archeological’s New Frontier.
The spectral signature of a pigment in one region can
be distinguished from a pigment with a similar appearance
from a different region. Archaeological application devises
new techniques– low angle “raking”, reflectance
Transformation imaging and InsciptiFact Digital Image
Library which incorporates texture, color and non-visible
characterization of archeological pieces.
PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS LINKS ARTHRITIS TO GUM
There has been a clinical association between periodontal
disease and RA (arthritis) and both diseases triggered by the
same factor. Aggregatibacter Actinomyecetemconmitans
induces citrullinated proteins detected by mass spec.
Bacterial secretion of a toxin to kill host immune cells which
allows a flux of calcium thus activating an enzyme that
This week we talked about what is valued and sought for in
individuals when they seek different career paths. Then we
We pointed out that much of our life is quite unpredictable
and that what we start out wanting, doing and behaving
changes throughout our life. An interesting piece in Quartz
reported on statistical data where in the past we could reflect
on anecdotal instances in changes.
In the short term there remains a consistency in our wanting
doing and behaving, however. Here we might pose that Luck
and Skill arbitrate on what happens in our careers.
CAREERS = LUCK + SKILLS
LUCK = preparation + opportunity + attitude
We suggested it is useful to set objectives, develop a plan
to achieve them and look for opportunities to be and act
professionally along the way. Build your committed network
ask for help, create and learn from “teachable moments”,
continuously learn, and be optimistic.
Two pieces of feedback from our class offered questions–
1- how can I network better? What should I learn and practice?
[understand your current personal values, behaviors and emotional
make-up; small talk, understand others’ make-ups and adapt
to achieve win-win outcomes]
2- it seems like the skills you list are just things to trick people on.
What is the basis for each item on the list, they wondered.
[real life often is a series of unpredictable events with little time
to think. Thus our habits will determine our behaviors. We wish
to figure out what our habits are modify them to be more effective.]
It is hard for some to learn that professional work is strongly
influenced by our cultural, personal and value-based habits.
It is often the case that how you do something is as important as
the outcomes that you achieve. Sometimes the result is “pure
luck” but as we know we “create much of our luck”.
A question came in:
Can you tell me again the differences (e.g. particular years’
experience) between adept, skilled, proven track record in and
problems with, Experienced is not strong enough.
When you do more- design, develop, implement, and solve
- Experienced in can be used for software or running equipment.
managing projects where you have metrics to describe the results-
- Proven track record is last and only relates to things like sales,
- Proficient having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude
These “lead in” phrases are common introductions into
skill qualifications and Highlights section of a resume.
- adept; a person who is skilled or proficient at something.
adept, expert, good, practiced, proficient, skillful, skilful(adj)
“they are adept at kung fu and karate”
budget, time, results, people.
It is a sign of low skill to repeat the same one more than once.
That is why we have several to choose
Hope this helps.
Additionally under unique situations certain individuals can be
“experts in…”. Daniel Levitin has written about who can be
The term expert is normally reserved for people who have
undertaken special training, devoted a large amount of time to
developing their expertise (e.g. MD, pilots, musicians, athletes.)
and those whose abilities or knowledge are considered high
relative to others’.
As such, expertise is a social judgment and relative. …
Expertise also falls along a continuum.
Individuals with similar training and levels or expertise will not
necessarily agree with one another, and even if they do, these
experts are not always
Experts are often licensed, or hold licensed degrees, or are
recognized by other authorities.
In science, technology and medicine experts’ work appears
in peer-reviewed journals or on patents, recognized with
awards, running or starting a company or amassing wealth.
Expertise tends to be domain-specific and typically
INTERVIEWING AND NEGOTIATIONS
In negotiations it is not unusual for you to be asked
“How much do you make now?” and Something
like, “What are your salary expectations?”
Recent ideas have materialized into legislation in
MA where it is no longer legal to ask about salary
history for in-state positions. Note, too, that a later
paragraph states the law takes effect in 2018.
The article offers a response to the salary query–
“.. personal practice to keep salary confidential, as
my research has provided employers compensate
qualified employees with a salary between $xx
and $xy, and your being a leader I would not be
surprised to hear from you in the upper portion of
PARENTAL LEAVE GRAD STUDENTS, POST-DOCS
inda Wang CEN 1-2-17, P. 23-4 PARENTAL LEAVE
Let me shout out about Linda Wang’s meaningful
article in the first issue of 2017 CEN on parental leave.
With the continuing trend of very long graduate
school tenures followed by one or more post doctoral
stints those wishing the fulfillment of family life
either learn too late that certain people or organizations
frown on or discourage distractions from their goals.
I dare say there can even be blacklisting or not offering
article on Title IX
CONTINUOUS PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
What can we do to remain employable throughout
our careers? We do not think about that until often
it is too late. It is in the present that we carry out our goals.
You should choose positions that provide personal satisfactions
day-to-day so you stick with it. Engage in activities that
have outcomes that coincide with your personal longer
Early on in your careers you should realize that doing the
same things over and over is self limiting. You need to
bring to bear what is emerging in the larger employment
market (artificial intelligence, computation, robotics) and
seek out and complete career focused education, experiences
and certifications. The Economist
and some trends. (1)Self examination leading to Curiosity
is critical to continually learn and
(2) knowing your learning style and adapting content to
meet your style for long term application and near term
demands is your responsibility.
Large questions remain, namely,
(a)does the training and knowledge get recognition and
reward for the time and expense?
(b)Will there be experiences, skills and abilities that will
be useful where I am now and/or in other organizations?
ACS seems to have a working model for continuous
education and needs constant input for what would benefit
members. How can we better offer soft skill development?
is one specific area, for example.
It is amazing to realize the rapid changes in career
management factors we face. Psychology, economics and
-inference are longer term factors for our careers.
Let me list some specific examples:
ROUTINE TASK AUTOMATION
leveraged loans to automate functions with software and
robotics ) puts middle skilled workers in precarious straits.
[Read: recent graduates with no experience or internships.]
Those who do non-routine work (low-paid, unskilled and
richly paid, highly skilled) are in demand. We see this Job
Polarization in many situations with supporting elements
being stagnating wages and reallocation of roles from
specialization to variety of roles with less specialization.
Thanks to advances in deep learning and AI, computers can
perform not only manual but also cognitive tasks better and
faster than humans. This augers the result that highly trained
specialists are replaced by internet enhanced software, a
specific example is radiologists since much of their work
are “routine cognitive tasks.”
BLACK ELEPHANT SITUATIONS
for alternate energy sources, energy independence and electric
” A black elephant is a cross between a black swan, a low
probability, unanticipated event with enormous ramifications–
and the elephant in the room, a problem that is widely visible to
everyone, yet no one wants to address, even though we
absolutely know that one day we will have vast, black-swan-like
consequences.” Ocean acidification is an example.
Black elephant events can provide a once in a lifetime opportunity
or the end of the line for industries (think chemical photography),
companies, and directions in our careers.
COGNIFYING AND CONTINUOUS LEARNING
Adding AI to various tasks enables us to do more at lower cost and
higher efficiency. Add AI to laundry to tell washing machines to
adjust to the contents of each load as directed by the clothes (sensors).
AI added to chemistry can aid discoverability and optimization by
performing virtual experiments to reduce the number of lab
experiments to reach a goal. Think of the way Netflix and Kindle
come up with customer recommendations.
This is cognifying. All cognition is specialized. In this continuous
learning process we need to work with AI and robots and let
these tools take our routine tasks and help us dream up
new work that matters. There are four classes of jobs:
1. Jobs humans can do, but robots can do even better.
highway driving, tax preparation, routine x-ray analysis,
pre-trial evidence gathering, etc.
2. Jobs humans cannot do, but robots can.
remote locations, hazardous environments, monitoring,
then signalling an alarm. Jobs that would not be done without
robots and sensors.
3. Jobs we did not know we wanted done.
4. Jobs only humans can do– at first.
creativity (on what we should do), new situations, one of a
Our human assignment should be to keep making jobs for
robots and software.
Reading a powerful work by Rana Foroohar, “Makers and
Takers,” that explains the strong undercurrent that drives
the visible trends we see in offshoring, in automation, in
uneven distribution of profits and benefits. It is what she
The first entry into Economics
highlighted the need for the
ACS to engage “Economics practices,” like true forecasting
and principles that members can truly benefit from. Older
practices of “reporting old news” is insufficient for a true
The second Economics posting
pointed out observations of
limited startups and further concentration bigger firms
driving short term profits, bonuses for C-suite, and shareholder
WHAT IT IS ABOUT
This posting on Makers and Takers who are
M: people, companies and ideas that create real economic
T: users of the evolving dysfunctional market based systems
that aim to enrich themselves without resulting consequences
The Takers implement “FINANCIALIZATION” that push
outsourcing, not thinking about challenges to supply chain,
and promote flash trading and computer-generated algorithms
used in complex securities resulting in market crashes.
Another longer term result is that the labor practices of Wall Street
are being imposed on the nature of employment and kinds
of workers used everywhere. ”Wall Street values not worker
stability but constant market simultaneity. If mortgages are
not the best thing, let’s get rid of the mortgage desk and we will
hire them back in a year. They are ‘liquid people.’”
Besides decreases in lending (to support start ups and new ideas),
and increases in trading and debt securities (rising debt and
credit levels stoke financial instability; debt fueled finance
has become the saccharine substitute for growth), we observe
the mounting monopoly power of large financial institutions
that dominate allocation and are causing even the most successful
ventures to take on debt, reduce regulation and influence legal
This is a readable book that illuminates much of what we are
experiencing and ACS members need to know about.
As we look to intersecting fields with the chemical enterprise,
photonics continues to make enormous strides. Related
fields include optomechanics [interaction of EM radiation and
mechanical vibrations], opto-atomics [in precision time-keeping,
metrology, etc.], and polaritonics [carrier is polariton].
My exposure and, perhaps, many readers is with photochemistry
energy levels and quantum mechanics. With the advent of
lasers, emitting diodes, nonstoichiometric compounds,
nanomaterials and devices, a wider range of materials, devices,
timeframes, meta-structures and forces/particles emerges as
So much of the origin of photonics is silicon based. In addition,
the natural abundance and similarity of silicon to carbon
coordination bring up a question to the curious– what about
silicon and silicon-carbon based evolution?
A recent Science publication highlighted in an article in
points out how bacteria isolated from Iceland’s hot
springs have enzymes that efficiently form C-Si bonds.
This brings us back to some chemistry.
Genome, proteome, epigenome, metabolome,
pharmacogenome and dozens of other fields of study involve
chemistry. They all relate informally to the characterization
of molecular entities in biological fields translating into the
structure, function and dynamics of organisms.
Omics International pulls together open access publications
and conferences aiming to taking science, engineering,
technology and management of biological fields and disseminate
broadly. Panomics is a more inclusive term for interaction with
all biological functions within a cell and with other body
functions by combining data from targeted tests, global assays
with other patient-specific information.
Pharmaceutical enterprises face complex networks in understanding
predictive and actionable models
So we see this in the evolution of epigenomics, lipidomics,
and lipoprotein proteomics. Recently, interesting reports of
This -omics factoring should be looked for in reports of newly
Do you feel amazed each time you read about new advances
where one of the fundamental components is optical? I am.
Optical fabrication and materials play a central role in many
things we do– practical every day, engineering and scientific.
The first reference is in Photonics Spectra magazine which
gives major milestones in optics fabrication.
The second is a link to a compact review of real world applications
and methods of applied spectroscopy.
The third is a link to a review on miniaturization driven by reduced
costs and space impacts combined with advances in microelectronics.
What this sketch outlines is an 800 year acceleration of development
especially over the last half century. This is part of a review by
combine optical tools with spectroscopic and multi-laser
sources and computer integrated sampling.
REAL WORLD SPECTROSCOPY
Nice appropriate review on some of the latest developments
including Total-reflection X-ray Fluorescence, Laser-induced
breakdown spectroscopy at small scales, rapid cancer detection
FT-IR and peptide folding using laser-Raman.
3-D imaging and continuously increasing complex NIRS
applications were reported and cited.
ADVANCES IN MINIATURIZATION
SOURCE: V. Balaram Spectroscopy 10-16
of analytical tools is allowing scientific investigations in a number
of realms, including space exploration, geological studies,
environmental sensors and redundancy to increase the validity
The recent article in CEN on Cloud Computing in the Pharmaceutical
industry was on point for the some of the trends that Kevin Kelly
pointed out in his recent book The Inevitable.
Essential things that readers of the CEN article should be aware
of that Kelly documents include:
1. Existence in the digital realm is chiefly MAINTENANCE. The
more complex the gear, the more attention it will require. Upgrade
this and you need upgrades everywhere.
1.a. The cycle of obsolescence is accelerating, you will never have
time to master anything.
2. There are ERAS of this Internet Cloud Computing. Think about
how we employ hyperlinks, interrogate large data troves, carefully
curate processes and “platforms.”. [Platforms favor services and access.]
3. Great QUESTIONS create new territories of thinking and lead
to the need to FORECAST with more possible outcomes.
Readers are encouraged to pick up and read Kevin Kelly’s book that
looks at the unrecognized present and optimistic future integrated
via cloud resources.
Tom Friedman on Meet the Press restated the current situation
many job seeking technical degree individuals face.
[Hard to locate in a hour-long program. So, the statement
is cut-and-pasted into the COMMENT section.]
Ten years ago R. Jones edited a series of factors
giving rise to the apparent trend involving the
globalization of chemical enterprise industries.
We have urged ACS in this blog to report and
follow the Economics in the Chemical
Enterprise as the older model (of globalization)
is less valid now as an important concept for
We observed that globalization is less
significant now and plays much less of a strategic
role as superstar companies
that use an array of
qualities. They have distinctive cultures and
traditions that many academic centers are little
aware of, including seeking and following top
talent (stretch assignments, accelerator
experiences, and crucible roles) and keeping their
focus on a long term vision (by modifying their
shareholders’ voting rights) and managing finances,
legislation and financial markets.
The Economist reported on recent trends in its
article as a new age of corporatism giving rise to
consolidation to stay on top “hoovering up talent,
buying patents and investing in research.” We can see
this leading to problems ascribed to concentration of
pay, technology, top execs and vast amounts of
In an interesting related piece in Cheeky Scientist Blog
which are critical to a company’s success. While most
know “companies have R&D, Marketing and Sales,”
few realize also critical to success are finance, supply
chain and information technology.
I suspect these are all new to Chemists and Engineers
and this reveals the need for further education in these
and traditional areas that have further evolved.
Preparing for some engagements I came across
several interesting items that readers might like.
There is a You-tube by Anthony Goldbloom
(<5 minutes)that assesses future trends in careers.
Related to this is an extensive article on an
enumeration of barriers to scientific career paths
by three authors in vox.com.
Science and engineering fields play a out-sized role in
early identification of epidemics and investigating the
source and developing therapies and preventatives. A
new epidemics coalition was formed that readers should
be aware of.
As scientist,s every time we see reports of batteries catching
fire we ask can it happen to me. We all use lithium batteries
in our everyday life. K M Abraham has eloquently laid out
causes and prevention. Read on.
SOURCES: Anthony Goldbloom,
Goldbloom in a TED talk reveals trends we all see around
us. He points to a worldview that it would be fruitful to take
in overcoming robots, automation, computer-integration and
the Internet…prizing the human area of excellence which is
creativity and innovation.
Belluz, et al present a case that science observed from a 30,000
foot level has challenges related to
(a) funding and funding sources and related biases
(b) developing new ideas and confirming by reproducing
(c) high integrity peer review
(d) how we interact and communicate to larger audiences
CEPI COALITION FOR EPIDEMIC PREPAREDNESS
wiki and others (pay-walls!)
The WHO slides
reveal a striking new organization for
the benefit of mankind striving for four goals
-equity to all stakeholders
This is an organization that ACS members should connect
to and contribute. It is a high value strategic organization that
is truly part of our organization’s mission statement.
KM does a thorough review of the fundamentals of the controlled
release of energy in battery technology and who it can be
compromised by materials, manufacturing defects and
This is applied chemistry at its best.
The global pace is speeding up. To meet the needs and
interests of members and institutional stakeholders the
Society needs to incorporate broader and deeper aspects
of economics in the technical and scientific aspects of
the chemical enterprise.
Think: mergers and acquisitions; government funding of
CDC, EPA, NIH, chemical research; international trade
arrangements; patent implications for different industries;
water, power, recycling…
We need to access disciplines that will continuously
FORECAST business cycles that affect the chemical
enterprise and describe implications to members and
has described how
- more attention is paid to one issue rather than the
gradual and incremental changes all around us
- flashy and superficial is promoted
- faster and shorter-lasting dominates
- ease of money, ideas and pathogens moving around
with less friction and checking means disaster can
happen before we are aware
- industries and companies can disappear with a click
of a network or computerized trading micro-second
- trajectories are nonlinear and interruptable
One strategic area ACS needs to grow and foster
is economic forecasting. This blog has reviewed
Reading Chris Voss’s book on negotiations convinced me
that we need to keep learning. Don’t ever stop the process
of gathering new information from different sources,
Chris Voss really has the expertise that can be applied even in
simplest situations. Watch
- never say: have you a few minutes to talk?
- instead say:, is this a good time to talk?
Get that other person to say “That’s right.”
Use the facts as the other person sees them.
Let me highlight several significant take-aways–
1. Calibrated “how” questions keep the negotiation going. They put
pressure on your counterpart to come up with answers and
contemplate your problems when making their demands.
How am I supposed to.. How do we know…How can we….
How questions allow you to read and shape the negotiating
environment. You just have to know where you want the conversation
2. 3 kinds of “yes”: commitment, confirmation, counterfeit
3. Ackerman plan– set your goal, then first offer at 2/3 point,
calculate at three smaller increments
use lots of empathy and different “no” strategy to counter, before
you increase your offer.
use non-round numbers in your final offer
after final number, throw in nonmonetary items
What was interesting was that Chris challenges many of the earlier
strategies in negotiation tactics.
Some universities have a section of their graduate
school orientation that will involve self assessments
for each. It is so important that this part of
technical professionals education is incorporated
as it is so often missed or at least delayed so that
reflection and use of the learning can be part of
Our session incorporated concepts put forward
by Tom Vanderbilt and Daniel Goleman on how
Myers-Briggs, Values and Behaviors instruments
might be used. Vanderbilt
clarifies that our
“likes” form our identity and often are habitual
and we may not have a “why” or words to describe
categories and choices under specific
brings up the psychology of interpersonal
behavior that brings in self-knowledge and logical
understanding of others values, behaviors and “likes”.
Equal time in our session involved actual exercise
engagements to point out how differences can be
systematic with groups identified by MBTI.
- Who likes “small talk”, working by themselves,
who gains energy from crowds.
- Pointing out the difference between the
“golden rule” [treat others like we want to be treated]
“platinum rule” [treat others like they want to be
- revealing habits of J vs. P profiles [again without
reflection and considering “why”] in working on
projects due in a month. [early starters vs pressure
- hands on activity of selecting, building and
explaining a group toy project that emphasized
We have a new competitor in science, technology and
engineering fields. It is the Internet, computers and
automation. We can be competitive in our careers if
we can do things that computers and robots are not
best at– creativity, originality, developing new
hypotheses and interpretation.
If you are like I am you were taken by the news that
three Irish investigators reported interpreting the
behavior of light’s angular momentum. It goes back
many years when lasers were originally reported and
how many important devices and technologies are
based on stimulated emission.
More and more complex systems are being
experimentally interrogated using high content screening
technologies.. John Conley has authored a insightful
review of important trends that new devices enable.
Finally, in discussing potential careers after graduation
with a computational biologist we brought up
epidemiology. For a computationally astute scientist
this is a relevant and important career path that has
been brought to the fore by relevant high content
screening and computational estimation. This
is more significant in being cost and time efficient.
NON-INTEGER ANGULAR MOMENTUM LIGHT
Ballantine et al have reported that light may be
characterized with a different property than wavelength.
There is speculation in how this can be applied.
INFLUENCE OF NEW TECHNOLOGY ON HIGH
John Comley surveyed the field and projects where
developments and advances will come in computational
biology especially using confocal imaging where
CRISPR-Ca9 technology will be exploited.
COMPUTATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGYM. Marathe and N. Ramakrishnan
advances and directions in their recent review.
They wrote about future directions using synthetic
populations, social network sensors and data modeling.
This work is of high value at CDC
, MD Anderson
It is not accidental that physics, biology, biochemistry
and computer science/mathematics is all brought
together in this entry.